Types of Washers: A Detailed Overview
1. Flat Washers
- Materials: Typically made from steel, stainless steel, brass, or nylon.
- Thickness Variations: Ranges from ultra-thin to thicker models.
- Notable Features: Might have a chamfer on the outer surface.
2. Spring Washers (Split Lock Washers)
- Materials: Often made from hardened steel.
- Design: Helical shape.
- Notable Features: Exerts axial force.
3. Toothed Lock Washers
- Materials: Usually made of steel and sometimes coated for corrosion resistance.
- Design Variations:
- External Toothed: Teeth are on the outer circumference.
- Internal Toothed: Teeth are on the inner circumference.
- Notable Features: Teeth biting action provides a locking feature.
4. Belleville Washers (Conical Spring Washers)
- Materials: Typically made from spring steel.
- Design: Conical or dome-shaped.
- Notable Features: Can be stacked in series or in parallel to achieve desired load and flexibility.
5. NordLock Washers
- Materials: Commonly made from steel with zinc flake coating for corrosion resistance.
- Design: Pair of washers with a wedge-locking action.
- Notable Features: Radial teeth on the opposite side enhance the locking function.
6. Spherical Washers
- Materials: Carbon steel is most common.
- Design: Comprises two parts, one concave and the other convex.
- Notable Features: Allows for the leveling of parts, accommodating up to a few degrees of surface angle.
7. Dock Washers
- Materials: Generally made of steel.
- Design: Much larger and thicker than standard flat washers.
- Notable Features: Its sheer size and thickness provide robust support, making it ideal for heavy-duty applications.
8. Square Washers
- Materials: Carbon steel, stainless steel.
- Design: Typically has a larger surface area than flat washers.
- Notable Features: Its shape allows for better surface contact in strut systems and reduces chances of rotation.
9. Fender Washers
- Materials: Steel, stainless steel, brass, or aluminum.
- Design: Thin washer with a wide diameter.
- Notable Features: The broad diameter distributes load, especially on soft materials, preventing pull-through.